Rates of Tears

Learning outcome:

  • Discuss factors that increase the risk of tears

References and Resources:

  1. Great images to explain perineal tears on the Mayo Clinic website. Click here. 
  2. Kopas, M. L. (2014). A review of evidence-based practices for management of the second stage of labor. J Midwifery Womens Health. 59(3):264-76. Click here.
  3. Alliman, J. and Phillippi, J. C. (2016). Maternal Outcomes in Birth Centers: An integrative review of the literature. J Midwifery Womens Health. 61(1): 21-51. Click here.
  4. Cheyney, M., Bovbjerg, M., Everson, C., et al. (2014). Outcomes of care for 16,924 planned home births in the U.S.: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004 to 2009. J Midwifery Womens Health. 59(1): 17-27. Click here. 
  5. Shorten, A., Donsante, J. and Shorten, B. (2002). Birth position, accoucheur, and perineal outcomes: informing women about choices for vaginal birth. Birth. 29(1): 18-27. Click here.
  6. Sandall, J., Soltani, H., Shennan, A., et al. (2013). Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (8): CD004667. Click here.
  7. Hutton, E. K., Cappelletti, A., Reitsma, A. H., et al. (2016). Outcomes associated with planned place of birth among women with low-risk pregnancies. CMAJ. 188(5): E80-E90. Click here.
  8. Snowden, J. M., Tilden, E. L., Snyder, J., et al. (2015). Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth and Birth Outcomes. N Engl J Med. 373(27): 2642-2653. Click here.
  9. Hastings-Tolsma, M., Vincent, D., Emeis, C., et al. (2007). Getting through birth in one piece: protecting the perineum. MCN AM J Matern Child Nurs. 32: 158-64. Click here.
  10. Landy H. J., Laughon, S. K., Bailit, J. L., et al. (2011). Characteristics associated with severe perineal and cervical lacerations during vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 117(3): 627-35. Click here.
  11. Leeman, L., Fullilove, A. M., Borders, N., et al. (2009). Postpartum perineal pain in a low episiotomy setting: Association with severity of genital trauma, labor care and birth variables. Birth. 36(4): 283-8. Click here.
  12. Fitzpatrick, M. & O’Herlihy, C. (2007). Postpartum care of the perineum. Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. 9: 164–170. Click here.
  13. Johnson, A., Thakar, R. and Sultan, A. H. (2012). Obstetric perineal wound infection: is there underreporting? Br J Nurs. 21(5): S28-35. Click here.

iframe src=”https://player.vimeo.com/video/275654189″ width=”640″ height=”360″ frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen=”allowfullscreen”>

Learning outcome:

  • Summarize the research and discuss techniques used by providers with very low tear rates

References and Resources:

  1. Mottet, N., Bonneaud. M., Eckman-Lacroix, A., et al. (2017). Active delivery of the anterior arm and incidence of second-degree perineal tears: a clinical practice evaluation. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 17: 141. Click here.
  2. Begley, C., Guilliland, K., Dixon, L., et al. (2018). A qualitative exploration of techniques used by expert midwives to preserve the perineum intact. Women Birth. Epub ahead of print. Click here.